Elassandra Enterprise plugin provides advanced features to monitor, manage and secure Elassandra. See strapdata for more details.


You must install the Enterprise plugin on ALL nodes of Elasticsearch enabled datacenters in your Cassandra cluster, and the Enterprise plugin version must match the version of Elassandra you are running. Installation require a full restart, usally a rolling restart of nodes.

  1. Install the Enterprise Plugin :
bin/plugin install file:///path/to/enterprise-<version>.zip
  1. Create a symbolic link from the conf/triggers directory to plugins/enterprise/enterprise-<version>.jar
(cd conf/triggers/ && ln -s ../../plugins/enterprise/enterprise-<version>.jar)
  1. Restart your Elassandra node.
  2. Check for installed plugins :
$curl -XGET "http://localhost:9200/_nodes?pretty"
"plugins" : [
       "name" : "enterprise",
       "version" : "5.5.0",
       "description" : "Elassandra enterprise plugin.",
       "classname" : "com.strapdata.elasticsearch.plugin.EnterprisePlugin",
       "has_native_controller" : false

To uninstall the Enterprise plugin :

  1. Remove the symbolic link from the conf/triggers directory.
rm conf/triggers/enterprise-<version>.jar
  1. Uninstalling the Enterprise plugin :
bin/plugin remove enterprise
  1. Restart your Elassandra node.

License management

Enterprise plugin require a valid license. You can request for a free 30 days trail license or purchase a souscription including technical support for Elassandra. If your license expires, the enterprise plugin operates in a restricted mode until a valid license is installed.

Feature Description Restricted mode
JMX JMX monotoring of Elasticsearch indices Node restart required to see new index metrics, JMX attributes become read-only
SSL SSL encryption of Elasticsearch connections  
AAA User Authentication, Authorization and Audit Node restart required to reload users’privileges, no more audit trails.
CBS Content-Based Security rules Node restart required to reload users’privileges.


If the number of nodes of licensed datacenters becomes greater than your license maximum number of nodes, the license becomes invalid on all your nodes.

License installation

Licenses are stored in a Cassandra table elastic_admin.licenses. You can also put a conf/license.json file, this file is automatically loaded at boot time if elastic_admin.licenses is empty.

cassandra@cqlsh> select * from elastic_admin.licenses;

 id                                   | clustername | company | datacenters | email           | expire                          | features                     | generated                       | issuer    | maxnodes | production | signature                                                                                      | start                           | type
 bbbef903-bbea-401d-838d-faf696e53547 | TestCluster | thecorp |     ['DC1'] | contact@thecorp | 2018-10-01 22:00:00.000000+0000 | ['JMX', 'SSL', 'AAA', 'CBS'] | 2017-10-02 13:23:09.227000+0000 | Strapdata |        3 |      False | 0x302c02141404c757c3d0e387a8f6194669d5b0a677fbb82102145b88c2785ffabc26b3aa9df72ba03b65f4a829fe | 2017-10-01 22:00:00.000000+0000 | TRIAL

Checking your license

You can use the REST license API to check the currenly active license. If your current configuration require SSL encryption and user authentication, you must provide a valid login, password and root CA certificate.

$ curl --user <username>:<password> --cacert conf/cacert.pem -XGET "https://localhost:9200/_license?pretty"
  "id" : "bbbef903-bbea-401d-838d-faf696e53547",
  "issuer" : "Strapdata",
  "company" : "thecorp",
  "email" : "contact@thecorp",
  "generated" : "2017-10-02T13:23:09.227Z",
  "start" : "2017-10-01T22:00:00.000Z",
  "expire" : "2018-10-01T22:00:00.000Z",
  "production" : false,
  "max_nodes" : 3,
  "cluster_name" : "TestCluster",
  "datacenters" : [
  "type" : "TRIAL",
  "features" : [
  "status" : "valid",
  "signature" : "0x302c02141404c757c3d0e387a8f6194669d5b0a677fbb82102145b88c2785ffabc26b3aa9df72ba03b65f4a829fe"

Upgrading your license

You can update your licence by inserting additional license row in the Cassandra elastic_admin.licenses table.

cassandra@cqlsh> INSERT INTO elastic_admin.licenses JSON '{"id":"bb0a181c-dbc6-4255-8d69-67b6e1d276ce","issuer":"Strapdata","company":"thecorp","email":"contact@thecorp","type":"TRIAL","features":["JMX","SSL","AAA"],"production":false,"generated":"2017-09-26 09:10:15.604Z","start":"2017-09-25 22:00:00.000Z","expire":"2018-09-25 22:00:00.000Z","clustername":"TestCluster","datacenters":["DC1"],"maxnodes":1,"signature":"0x302d02140b49e8c00b3606c66fe22378acb1ab781410460d02150092b666041dd97887b7d624fd6a12bbd434a955ed"}';

Then reload the license with a POST REST request as shown below, each nodes returns its active license If you have several licenses in elastic_admin.licenses, the most recenlty generated valid license is used.

$ curl --user <username>:<password> --cacert /opt/elassandra-5.5.0/conf/cacert.pe -XPOST "https://localhost:9200/_license?pretty"
  "_nodes" : {
    "total" : 2,
    "successful" : 2,
    "failed" : 0
  "cluster_name" : "TestCluster",
  "nodes" : {
    "d607917d-8c68-4cc5-8dc2-2aa21f5ea986" : {
      "name" : "",
      "license_id" : "bbbef903-bbea-401d-838d-faf696e53547"
    "a1c5307c-5f5a-4676-a6f0-50f221dd655b" : {
      "name" : "",
      "license_id" : "bbbef903-bbea-401d-838d-faf696e53547"


If you have several Elasticsearch clusters in your Cassandra cluster, reload the license on each datacenter where Elasticsearch is enabled.

JMX Managment & Monitoring

The JMX technology provides a standard solution for managing and monitoring java applications. With the JMX feature, you can manage and monitor both Cassandra and Elasticsearch.

JMX Monitoring

The JMX feature expose Elasticsearch metrcis over JMX, allowing to monitor Elasticsearch cluster, index shards, threadpool and networks activities. You can browse these metrics with various JMX clients like VisualVM or jmxterm.

JMXTerm example :

java -jar jmxterm-1.0.0-uber.jar -l localhost:7199
$>domain org.elasticsearch.index
#domain is set to org.elasticsearch.index
$>bean org.elasticsearch.index:name=sales_2017,scope=search,type=IndexShard
#bean is set to org.elasticsearch.index:name=sales_2017,scope=search,type=IndexShard
$>get *
#mbean = org.elasticsearch.index:name=sales_2017,scope=search,type=IndexShard:
QueryTotal = 21;
FetchTotal = 0;
ScrollTotal = 0;
QueryTimeInMillis = 56038;
QueryCurrent = 0;
FetchTimeInMillis = 0;
FetchCurrent = 0;
ScrollTimeInMillis = 0;
ScrollCurrent = 0;
SuggestCount = 0;
SuggestTimeInMillis = 0;
SuggestCurrent = 0;

These metrcis can be pulled, or pushed to various tools (graphite, ganglia or influxdb) using the popular Metrics Library embedded in Apache Cassandra.

Here is a sample configuration located in conf/influxdb-reporting.yaml sending JMX metrics to an influxdb database named elassandra.

  dbName: 'elassandra'
  protocol: 'http'
    environment: 'test'
    cluster: 'test_cluster'
    host: 'vm1'
    - host: 'vm1'
      port: 8086
  timeunit: 'SECONDS'
  period: 60
  prefix: ''
  groupGauges: true

To enable this configuration :

Then configure Grafana to build your Elassandra dashboard.


Enable/Disable search on a node

The JMX feature allows to exclude/include a node from distributed search while still receiving CQL write, repairing or rebuilding its elasticsearch indices, by setting the following attributes on the JMX Bean org.elasticsearch.node:type=node

JMX Attribute Default value Description
SearchEnabled true Set wether or not the node is invloved in distributed search queries from other nodes. When SearchEnabled is false on a node, all its shards are seen UNASSIGNED from other nodes.
AutoEnableSearch true If true, the node automatically set SearchEnabled to true when it becomes available, participating to distributed search queries. In order to restart a node in a maintenance mode for search requests, you can set AutoEnableSearch to false with the system property es.auto_enable_search.

To set SearchEnabled on command line, just use jmxterm as in the following exemple.

echo "set -b org.elasticsearch.node:type=node SearchEnabled false" | java -jar jmxterm-1.0.0-uber.jar -l localhost:7199

SSL Network Encryption

The SSL Feature provides trafic encryption for both HTTP and Elasticsearch transport connections.


Elasticsearch transport protocol is the native binary protocol used for Elasticsearch node-to-node communication. You can also use the transport protocol from a client application written in java, as describe in the elasticsearch documentation.

SSL configuration is defined in your conf/cassandra.yaml for both Cassandra and Elasticsearch :

  • Server options defines node-to-node encryption for both Cassandra and Elasticsearch. Obviously, Elasticsearch transport connections are encrypted when internode_encryption is set to all or rack (there is no elasticsearch cross-datacenter traffic).
  • Client options defines client-to-node encryption to request both Cassandra and Elasticsearch. If optional is true, Elasticsearch still accepts clear connections for HTTP and transport request.

To ensure support for all encryption algorithms, it is highly recommended to install the JCE Unlimited Strength Jurisdiction policy files on all nodes.

Here an SSL configuration in your conf/cassandra.yaml file :

# Enable or disable inter-node encryption
# Default settings are TLS v1, RSA 1024-bit keys (it is imperative that
# users generate their own keys) TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA as the cipher
# suite for authentication, key exchange and encryption of the actual data transfers.
# Use the DHE/ECDHE ciphers if running in FIPS 140 compliant mode.
# NOTE: No custom encryption options are enabled at the moment
# The available internode options are : all, none, dc, rack
# If set to dc cassandra will encrypt the traffic between the DCs
# If set to rack cassandra will encrypt the traffic between the racks
# The passwords used in these options must match the passwords used when generating
# the keystore and truststore.  For instructions on generating these files, see:
# http://download.oracle.com/javase/6/docs/technotes/guides/security/jsse/JSSERefGuide.html#CreateKeystore
    internode_encryption: all
    keystore: conf/.keystore.jks
    keystore_password: changeit
    truststore: conf/.truststore.jks
    truststore_password: changeit
    # More advanced defaults below:
    protocol: TLSv1.2
    # algorithm: SunX509
    # store_type: JKS
    # require_client_auth: true

# enable or disable client/server encryption.
    enabled: true
    # If enabled and optional is set to true encrypted and unencrypted connections are handled.
    optional: true
    keystore: conf/.keystore.jks
    keystore_password: changeit
    require_client_auth: true
    # Set trustore and truststore_password if require_client_auth is true
    truststore: conf/.truststore.jks
    truststore_password: changeit
    # More advanced defaults below:
    protocol: TLSv1.2
    # algorithm: SunX509
    # store_type: JKS


If paths to keystores are relative, you could faced an issue when starting elassandra from another directory than the install directory. You should use absolute keystore paths to avoid such issues.

Elasticsearch SSL configuration

SSL for Elasticsearch is actived according to the following settings in your conf/elasticsearch.yml :

Setting Default Description
https.enabled false Enable HTTPS on client-to-node Elasticsearch connections
ssl.transport.enabled false Enable SSL on Elastisearch transport connections (node-to-node connections)

Once HTTPS is enabled, accessing your elasticsearch cluster requires the HTTPS protocol and a trusted certificate to validate the server side certificate :

curl -XGET --cacert conf/cacert.pem "https://localhost:9200/my_index/_search"

You can also check your SSL configuration with a GET /_sslinfo request.

curl -XGET --cacert conf/cacert.pem "https://localhost:9200/_sslinfo"
   "https_protocol" : "TLSv1.2",
   "https_cipher" : "TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384"

If client encryption is enabled in your conf/cassandra.yaml, and require_client_auth=true, a client certificate is required to connect.

JMX traffic Encryption

Enable SSL for JMX by setting the following parameters.

JVM_OPTS="$JVM_OPTS -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.ssl=true"
JVM_OPTS="$JVM_OPTS -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.ssl.need.client.auth=true"
JVM_OPTS="$JVM_OPTS -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.registry.ssl=true"
#JVM_OPTS="$JVM_OPTS -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.ssl.enabled.protocols=<enabled-protocols>"
#JVM_OPTS="$JVM_OPTS -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.ssl.enabled.cipher.suites=<enabled-cipher-suites>"

JVM_OPTS="$JVM_OPTS -Djavax.net.ssl.keyStore=<install_dir>/conf/server-keystore.jks"
JVM_OPTS="$JVM_OPTS -Djavax.net.ssl.keyStorePassword=changeit"
JVM_OPTS="$JVM_OPTS -Djavax.net.ssl.trustStore=<install_dir>/cassandra/conf/server-truststore.jks"
JVM_OPTS="$JVM_OPTS -Djavax.net.ssl.trustStorePassword=changeit"

Once SSL is enabled on JMX, nodetool utility requires the –ssl option.

Authentication and Authorization

Elasticsearch authentifcation and autorization is based on Cassandra internal Authentication and Role-Based Access Control, allowing to get an homogeneous security policy.

Cassandra internal authentication

To enable Cassandra authentication, set the following settings in your conf/cassandra.yaml, and restart your node :

authenticator: PasswordAuthenticator
authorizer: CassandraAuthorizer

Once authentication is enabled, create a new Cassandra superuser to avoid issue with the default “cassandra” superuser (Authentication with the cassandra superuser require QUORUM nodes to be available in your cluster), and change the default cassandra password.

cqlsh> ALTER ROLE cassandra WITH PASSWORD='******';

Then configure the replication factor for the system_auth keyspace according to your cluster configuration (see Configure Native Authentication). Finally, adjust roles and credential cache settings and disable JMX configuration of authentifcation and authorization cachElasticsearch Authentication, Authorization and Content-Based Security ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

Elasticsearch authentication settings are defined in conf/elasticsearch.yml. To be effective, these settings must be the same on all nodes of a Cassandra datacenter.

Setting Default Description
aaa.enabled false Enable Elasticsearch authentication and authorization.
aaa.rest.prompt true By default, a rejected HTTP request returns with a 403 code, meaning access is forbidden. When prompt is configured, rejected anonymous HTTP requests return a code 401 this prompt in the authorization header.
aaa.rest.realm ${cluster_name} authentication required Prompted realm when HTTP authentifcation is required.
aaa.user_header   When user is already authenticated by an HTTP proxy, you can define the HTTP header name used to carry the cassandra user’s name used to execute an elasticsearch request. To avoid security breach, you should properly restric unauthenticated access to elassandra when using such mecanism.
aaa.anonymous_user   Defines the cassandra user’s name used to execute unauthenticated request. If undefined, unauthenticated requests are rejected.
aaa.shared_secret Base64 encoded cluster name Shared secret used to tag authorized requests on the coordinator node. This should be a confidential per datacenter secret.
cbs.enabled false Enable or disable Content-Based Security.


Elasticsearch user authentication requires HTTPS. (User authentication without HTTPS is not supported).

In order to grant an Elasticsearch request, Elassandra checks two levels of access rights :

  1. First, Elassandra looks up for a privilege matching your elasticsearch request in the Cassandra table elastic_admin.privileges.
  2. If no privilege matches and request is related to indices, Elassandra looks up for a Cassandra permission associated to the user’s roles.


Privileges are defined in the Cassandra table elastic_admin.privileges.

CREATE TABLE elastic_admin.privileges (
   role text,
   actions text,
   indices text,
   fields set<text>,
   query text,
   PRIMARY KEY (role, actions, indices)
  • role: The user’s role.
  • actions: Regular expression defining the authorized actions.
  • indices: Regular expression defining the authorized target indices. If null, all indices backed by keyspaces associated to the role.
  • fields: List of visible fields of documents when Content-Base Security is enabled. Supports wilcards, for exemple foo* will match all fields starting by foo. If your request matches multiple privileges, returned document may contains all associated fields.
  • query: Filter query when Content-Base Security is enabled. If your request matches multiple privileges, returned document are filtered with all queries.


  • Cassandra superuser have full access to Elasticsearch.
  • All cluster-level access should be granted using privileges.
  • Content-Based Security should be used with read-only accounts.


Cassandra permission associated to a role are granted or revoked as shown below :

cassandra@cqlsh> GRANT SELECT ON KEYSPACE sales TO sales;
cassandra@cqlsh> LIST ALL PERMISSIONS;

 role      | username  | resource         | permission
 cassandra | cassandra |     <role sales> |      ALTER
 cassandra | cassandra |     <role sales> |       DROP
 cassandra | cassandra |     <role sales> |  AUTHORIZE
    sales |      sales | <keyspace sales> |     MODIFY

(4 rows)

cassandra@cqlsh> REVOKE SELECT ON KEYSPACE sales FROM sales;

Cassandra permissions associated to a role are mapped to Elasticserach Document and Indices APIs as follow.

Cassandra privilege Cassandra Permissions Elasticsearch Action Elasticsearch API
CREATE CREATE KEYSPACE and CREATE TABLE in any keyspace. indices:admin/create Create Index
ALTER ALTER KEYSPACE and ALTER TABLE in any keyspace. indices:admin/mapping indices:admin/alias indices:admin/template indices:admin/settings/update Put Mapping Index Alias Index Templates Update Indices Settings
DROP DROP KEYSPACE and DROP TABLE in any keyspace. indices:admin/delete Delete Index
EXECUTE Execute operations on any elasticsearch indices associated to the granted keyspaces. indices:admin/refresh indices:admin/flush indices:admin/optimize indices:admin/open indices:admin/close indices:admin/cache/clear indices:admin/analyze Refresh Flush Force Merge Open Index Close Index Clear Cache Analyze
DESCRIBE Retrieve stats about elasticsearch indices associated to the granted mbeans. indices:monitor/stats indices:monitor/segments Indices Stats Indices Segments
SELECT SELECT on any table. indices:data/read/* indices:admin/get indices:admin/exists indices:admin/types/exists indices:admin/mapping indices:admin/mappings/fields/get All document reading API Get Index Indices Exists Type Exists Get Mapping Get Field Mapping
MODIFY INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE on any table. indices:data/write/* All document writing API

Privilege caching

For performance reasons, the elasticsearch privilege table is cached into memory, according the the following settings in conf/elasticsearch.yml :

Setting Default Description
aaa.privilege_cache_expire 1h Privlege cache entry TTL
aaa.privilege_cache_size 1024 Privilege cache max entries.

When changing a privilege in elastic_admin.privileges, you should clear the cache with the follwing REST request to put the change into effect on available nodes :

curl -XPOST --user admin:admin --cacert conf/cacert.pem "https://localhost:9200/_aaa_clear_privilege_cache?pretty"
  "_nodes" : {
    "total" : 2,
    "successful" : 2,
    "failed" : 0
  "cluster_name" : "TestCluster",
  "nodes" : {
    "d607917d-8c68-4cc5-8dc2-2aa21f5ea986" : {
      "name" : ""
    "a1c5307c-5f5a-4676-a6f0-50f221dd655b" : {
      "name" : ""

If you just want to invalidate the privilege cache for some roles, you can specify roles :

POST _aaa_clear_privilege_cache?pretty&roles=sales,kibana"


If you are running multiple Elasticsearch cluster in your Cassandra cluster, you should clear privilege cache on each datacenter where Elasticsearch is enabled.


Secured Transport Client

The elasticsearch transport protocol used for inter-node communication can be used directly from your java application. It is very efficient as it does not have to deal with JSON serialzation. Strapdata provides a SSL transport client to work with a secured Elassandra cluster :

  1. If your Elassandra cluster requires user authentification, check that your user have access to the cluster topology with the Nodes Info API (action cluster:monitor/nodes/info).
  2. Add the ssl-transport-client.jar and its dependencies in your CLASSPATH.
  3. Add the desired configuration to your client settings, as shown in the following exemple.
  4. Add an Authorization header to your client containing your based-64 encoded login and password.
import com.strapdata.elasticsearch.plugins.ssl.PreBuiltSslTransportClient;

TransportClient client = new PreBuiltSslTransportClient(Settings.builder()
     .put("cluster.name", "myClusterName")
     .put("ssl.transport.enabled", true)
     .put("ssl.truststore.path", "/path/to/truststore.jks")
     .put("ssl.truststore.password", "******")
 .addTransportAddress(new InetSocketTransportAddress(InetAddress.getByName("localhost"), 9300))

 client.filterWithHeader(Collections.singletonMap("Authorization", PreBuiltSslTransportClient.encodeBasicHeader("bob","password")))

Available security settings for the secured transport client for Elassandra :

Setting Default Description
ssl.transport.enabled false Enable SSL on transport connections.
ssl.algorithm SunX509 Algorithm used to manage keys and certificates.
ssl.storetype JKS Crytptographic stores file format.
ssl.trust_all_cert false Trust all certificates
ssl.truststore.path conf/.truststore Path to your truststore.
ssl.truststore.password cassandra Truststore password.
ssl.protocol TLSv1.2 Secure protocol.
ssl.ciphers JCE default SSL Cipher suite
ssl.require_client_auth false Enable SSL client authentication.
ssl.keystore.path conf/.truststore Path to your keystore when using SSL client authentication.
ssl.keystore.password cassandra Truststore password when using SSL client authentication.
ssl.require_endpoint_verification false Enable server hostname verification.

Multi-user Kibana configuration

Kibana needs a dedicated kibana account to manage kibana configuration, with the CREATE, ALTER, MODIFY, SELECT cassandra permissions.

cassandra@cqlsh> CREATE ROLE kibana WITH PASSWORD = '*****' AND LOGIN = true;
cassandra@cqlsh> CREATE KEYSPACE "_kibana" WITH replication = {'class': 'NetworkTopologyStrategy', 'DC1':'1'};
cassandra@cqlsh> GRANT CREATE ON KEYSPACE "_kibana" TO kibana;
cassandra@cqlsh> GRANT ALTER ON KEYSPACE "_kibana" TO kibana;
cassandra@cqlsh> GRANT SELECT ON KEYSPACE "_kibana" TO kibana;
cassandra@cqlsh> GRANT MODIFY ON KEYSPACE "_kibana" TO kibana;
cassandra@cqlsh> LIST ALL PERMISSIONS OF kibana;

 role   | username | resource           | permission
 kibana |   kibana | <keyspace _kibana> |     CREATE
 kibana |   kibana | <keyspace _kibana> |      ALTER
 kibana |   kibana | <keyspace _kibana> |     SELECT
 kibana |   kibana | <keyspace _kibana> |     MODIFY

Add cluster monitoring access rights to the kibana user.

cassandra@cqlsh> INSERT INTO elastic_admin.privileges (role,actions,indices) VALUES ('kibana','cluster:monitor/.*','.*');
cassandra@cqlsh> SELECT * FROM elastic_admin.privileges ;

 role   | actions            | indices | fields | query
 kibana | cluster:monitor/.* |      .* |   null |  null

Finally, user accounts must have :

  • the SELECT permission on vizualized indices, especially on your default kibana index.
  • the SELECT permission on the kibana keyspace to read kibana configuration.
  • the MODIFY permission on the kibana keyspace to store kibana configuration if authorized to create/update kibana objects.


Once a user if authenticated by kibana, kibana keeps this information. In order to logout from your browser, clear cookies and data associated to your kibana server.

Elasticsearch Spark connector

The elasticsearch-hadoop connector can access a secured Elassandra cluster by providing the sames SSL/TLS and Username/Pasword authentication parameters as the orginal elasticsearch-hadoop connector. Here is an exaple with the spark-submit.

ES_OPTS="$ES_OPTS --conf spark.es.nodes="
ES_OPTS="$ES_OPTS --conf spark.es.nodes.wan.only=true"
ES_OPTS="$ES_OPTS --conf spark.es.net.ssl=true"
ES_OPTS="$ES_OPTS --conf spark.es.net.ssl.truststore.location=file:///path/to/truststore.jks"
ES_OPTS="$ES_OPTS --conf spark.es.net.ssl.truststore.pass=*******"
ES_OPTS="$ES_OPTS --conf spark.es.net.http.auth.user=john"
ES_OPTS="$ES_OPTS --conf spark.es.net.http.auth.pass=*******"

bin/spark-shell --driver-class-path path/to/elasticsearch-hadoop-5.5.0.jar $ES_OPTS

In order to works, the elasticsearch spark connector requires privileges to monitor your cluster and request for availables shards for search. You can associate these privileges to a dedicated cassandra role spark, and grant this role to the account used in your spark application. The spark role have no cassandra permission, but user john inherits its privileges from the elastic_admin.privileges table.

cassandra@cqlsh> CREATE ROLE spark;
cassandra@cqlsh> INSERT INTO elastic_admin.privileges (role,actions,indices) VALUES ('spark','cluster:monitor/.*','.*');
cassandra@cqlsh> INSERT INTO elastic_admin.privileges (role,actions,indices) VALUES ('spark','indices:admin/shards/search_shards','.*');
cassandra@cqlsh> SELECT * FROM elastic_admin.privileges WHERE role='spark';

 role   | actions                            | indices | fields | query
  spark |                 cluster:monitor/.* |      .* |   null |  null
  spark | indices:admin/shards/search_shards |      .* |   null |  null

(2 rows)
cassandra@cqlsh> GRANT spark TO john;
cassandra@cqlsh> LIST ROLES of john;

 role  | super | login | options
 spark | False | False |        {}
  john | False |  True |        {}

(2 rows)

Elasticsearch Auditing

Elasticsearch auditing tracks security events with the following fields :

Field Description
login User login
role Cassandra role
source Source IP of the elasticsearch request
action Elasticsearch action
indices Requested indices

Audits events are recorded in a Cassandra table or in a log file configured as an appender in your conf/logback.xml file.

Setting Default Description
aaa.audit.enabled false Enable or disable Elasticsearch auditing.
aaa.audit.appender none Audits events are recorded in a Cassandra table (cql) or in a logback appender (log).
aaa.audit.include_login   Comma separated list of logins to audit
aaa.audit.exclude_login   Comma separated list of logins not audited

Logback Audit

When using the log appender for audit, you should configure a dedicated logback appender in your conf/logback.xml file :

<appender name="AUDIT" class="ch.qos.logback.core.rolling.RollingFileAppender">
   <rollingPolicy class="ch.qos.logback.core.rolling.FixedWindowRollingPolicy">
   <triggeringPolicy class="ch.qos.logback.core.rolling.SizeBasedTriggeringPolicy">
      <pattern>%date{ISO8601} %msg%n</pattern>

And add a logger named LogbackAuditor with additiviy set to false :

<logger name="LogbackAuditor" level="DEBUG" additivity="false" >
     <appender-ref ref="AUDIT" />

Here an exemple of audit logs in the logs/audit.log file :

2017-10-20 14:11:49,854 200,PERMISSION,sales,roles/sales,/,indices:data/read/search,[sales_*]
2017-10-20 14:11:51,607 200,PERMISSION,sales,roles/sales,/,indices:data/read/search,[.kibana]
2017-10-20 14:11:52,377 200,PRIVILEGE,kibana,roles/kibana,/,cluster:monitor/main,null
2017-10-20 14:11:52,501 200,PRIVILEGE,kibana,roles/kibana,/,cluster:monitor/nodes/info,null
2017-10-20 14:11:52,627 200,PRIVILEGE,kibana,roles/kibana,/,cluster:monitor/nodes/info,null
2017-10-20 14:11:52,679 200,PERMISSION,sales,roles/sales,/,indices:data/read/mget[shard],[.kibana]
2017-10-20 14:11:52,751 200,PERMISSION,kibana,roles/kibana,/,indices:data/read/mget[shard],[.kibana]
2017-10-20 14:11:52,868 200,PRIVILEGE,kibana,roles/kibana,/,cluster:monitor/health,[.kibana]
2017-10-20 14:11:52,990 200,PERMISSION,kibana,roles/kibana,/,indices:data/read/search,[.kibana]

CQL Audit

When using the cql appender for audit, audit events are recorded in the cassandra table elastic_audit.events.

cassandra@cqlsh> select * from elastic_audit.events ;

 node     | event                                | action                        | indices     | level      | login  | role         | source   | status
----------+--------------------------------------+-------------------------------+-------------+------------+--------+--------------+----------+-------- | cf74fed0-b5a2-11e7-9508-157b11ac2561 |          cluster:monitor/main |        null |  PRIVILEGE | kibana | roles/kibana | |    200 | d2026070-b5a2-11e7-9508-157b11ac2561 |         cluster:monitor/state |        null |  PRIVILEGE | kibana | roles/kibana | |    200 | da709470-b5a2-11e7-9508-157b11ac2561 |      indices:data/read/search | ['sales_*'] | PERMISSION |  sales |  roles/sales | |    200 | d8025390-b5a2-11e7-9508-157b11ac2561 |        cluster:monitor/health | ['.kibana'] |  PRIVILEGE | kibana | roles/kibana | |    200 | cf9de390-b5a2-11e7-9508-157b11ac2561 |    cluster:monitor/nodes/info |        null |  PRIVILEGE | kibana | roles/kibana | |    200

If you want to have multiple copies of audit events in your cluster, you can alter the following default settings :

Setting Default Description
aaa.audit.cql.rf 1 Cassandra Replication Factor used when creating the elastic_audit keyspace.
aaa.audit.cql.cl LOCAL_ONE Write Consistency Level for audit events.

You can index with elasticsearch the elastic_audit.events table with the following mapping, where the event timeuuid column is explicitly mapped to a date :

curl -XPUT --user admin:admin --cacert conf/cacert.pem "https://localhost:9200/elastic_audit/" -d'

Then you can build you audit trail kibana report.



Keep in mind that CQL audit trail involves a network overhead because each node send some events to all other nodes. For better performances, you should use the Logback audit and collect events with Beat+Logstash into a dedicated elassandra cluster.


Content-Based Security Limitations

  • The request cache is disabled for search requests.

  • The following queries are not supported for document-level filtering :

    • Has Parent, Has Child queries.
    • Terms queries with lookups.
    • Geo Shape queries without inline shape definition.
    • Percolate queries.

If you try to insert an unsupported query in elastic_admin.privileges.query, you will get a syntax error as show bellow :

cassandra@cqlsh> insert into elastic_admin."privileges" (role,actions,indices,query) VALUES ('blogger','indices:data/read/.*','blog','{"query":{ "has_parent":{"parent_type":"blog","query":{"term":{"tag":"something"}}}}}');
SyntaxException: Unsupported query for content-based filtering